1 Jain (Deemed-to-be University), Bangalore, Karnataka, India
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Emotional intelligence (EI) has seen a rapid growth in the past decade and affects every aspect of human life. Academic performance is a key indicator of a students’ progress in higher education. This study is rooted in Bar-On et al.’s (2006) model of EI. The research aims to study the relationship between EI and academic performance of MBA students. Review of Literature has been done from 2010 to 2020, which spans across a decade. A total of 25 research articles were reviewed to identify the research gap. A conceptual model was framed and a research objective was identified. Hypotheses were formulated, in line with the objective of this study. This empirical study is based on a sample drawn from 960 MBA students across Karnataka using stratified sampling. Warrier’s EI Scale (a = 0.887) has been adapted, developed, and utilized for gathering the EI responses from the participants. Pearson’s correlation analysis reports that there is a direct relationship between academic performance and EI (r = 0.520). The study implicates that EI has a significant influence on academic performance. The findings are relevant to students, teachers, professors, educators, consultants, and parents who need to understand the role of EI in academics. It is recommended that the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) introduce EI as a subject for high school students, to enhance their academic performance as well as the quality of life. EI is effective and imperative for success in any job. Students deal with the emotions of faculty, non-teaching staff, peers, and family, therefore they need emotional management skills, to handle situations, that make for a healthier, productive, and rewarding life.
Emotional intelligence, academic performance, MBA, students, education
JEL Classification: I21, J24
Emotional intelligence (EI) has become the lifeline of organizations and institutions over the past few years. EI is becoming a subject of extensive research by research scholars, scientists, academicians as well as management professionals (Asghar et al., 2020). EI empowers an individual to deal with situations by using both reasoning and emotional abilities (Venkteshwar & Warrier, 2018). Intelligence accounts for only 20% of an individual’s success and the remaining 80% are contributed by EI (Boyatzis et al., 2000). When an individual has low EI, the performance is comparatively inferior to those who have higher EI (Asghar et al., 2020). The lifestyle and living conditions of the youth have induced stress in multiple forms. They need to have high EI to overcome those challenges. Students often have to interact with other students, faculty members, recruiters, and others in the society who have completely diverse backgrounds and EI plays a key role in helping them adapt to such diversity (Goleman, 1995).
Introduction to Higher Education
Higher education is the art of choosing, commercializing, and utilizing information for the advancement of society (Oyerinde et al., 2008). Through higher education, information of different horizons is presented to students in the form of subjects and modules that leads to their personal and professional growth. Higher education is normally, the formal education given to a student in educational institutions. The students must complete secondary education with a passing score to have the option to get into higher educational institutions (Adeoye et al., 2020). Higher education includes undergraduate and postgraduate education. Higher education consists of a structured syllabus that is planned for giving the student a global viewpoint. This normally attempts to give the student a holistic view and free’s him/her from the assumptions or other ethnocentric thoughts. Higher education empowers a student to make him/her a globalized citizen.
India has a highly structured and integrated higher education system, that offers courses in various fields such as sciences, arts and humanities, and commerce and management, along with social sciences, which was established by the parliament in the form of central, state, deemed, and private universities.
The term Emotional Intelligence was coined by Mayer and Salovey and then commercialized by Goleman in 1996 through his book (Goleman, 1995). EI is being aware of emotions and to learn to manage emotions under pressure. For both personal and professional success, EI is the key element. EI is a measure to understand emotions of self and others. The appropriate use of EI may predict up to 80% of life successes including the sense of contentment (Goleman, 1995).
1. Daniel Goleman’s definition: “Emotional intelligence refers to the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves, and for managing emotions well in ourselves and our relationships” (Boyatzis et al., 2000).
2. Mayer and Salovey’s Definition: “Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer & Salovey, 2007).
3. Mayer and Salovey (2007) states that “Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the processes involved in the recognition, use, understanding and management of one’s own and other emotional states to solve emotion-laden problems and to regulate behavior” (Mayer & Salovey, 2007).
According to Bar-On et al. (2006), “EI is the ability of an individual to understand oneself as well as other people.” It has been viewed as a process which aims at performance and achievement. This is viewed as procedure-oriented as opposed to result-oriented (Bar-On, 2004). Bar-On stated that EI can be enhanced with the help of training and therapy (Bar-On, 2004).
Warrier et al. (2021) reiterates, the Bar-On Model shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Five-dimensional Model of EI
Source: Bar-On et al. (2006).
Warrier et al. (2021) studied EI through thematic analysis with the help 21 psychologists. EI dimensions such as self-awareness, self-control, adaptability, and general mood shown in Figure 2 have become key components of mental health profiling (Warrier et al., 2021).
Figure 2. EI Dimensions
Source: Warrier et al. (2021).
Need for the Study
A growing number of educators recognize that students who receive an exclusive academic education may be ill-equipped for future challenges. Educational institutions are increasingly concerned about violence in classroom, challenging behaviors, discipline problems, disrespectful conduct, and bullying (Festus & Ekpete, 2012). In India, there is a paucity of systematic data on levels of social and emotional problems and their impact on academic performance in educational institutions (MacCann et al., 2020). Research on social and emotional problems and academic performance did not converge (Gupta & Huang, 2014). Therefore, the present study investigates the effect of EI on the academic performance of MBA students.
Review of Literature
Studies on Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance
MacCann et al. (2020) conducted a meta-analysis that examined the extent to which EI and academic performance are related. The overall effect of ρ = .20 using robust variance estimation (N = 42,529, k = 1,246 from 158 citations). The association is significantly stronger for ability EI (ρ = .24, k = 50) compared with self-rated (ρ = .12, k = 33) or mixed EI (ρ = .19, k = 90). This meta-analysis shows that EI has a small to moderate association with academic performance.
Asghar et al. (2020) investigated the influence of EI on academic performance (AP) of engineering students. 350 students of engineering universities of northern Punjab, Pakistan, took part in the survey. The results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and correlation stated that there is positive influence of EI on academic performance. It was also found that senior students were found to be more emotionally intelligent than junior students.
Jafari and Eftekhari (2020) conducted a study on 100 Shiraz medical students using Bradberry’s EQ tool. The results stated that there was a significant relationship between EI and academic achievement (p = .949).
Chan et al. (2020) examined how EI is associated with student engagement and how EI and engagement jointly predict key learning outcomes in higher education, including the students’ GPA, generic outcomes, and satisfaction with the university experience. The study adopted a prospective longitudinal design involving 560 first-year students from 10 faculties of a university in Hong Kong. The data were collected at two-time points, namely, before the start and after the end of the student’s first year in the university. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the measurement and hypothesized models. Results indicated that EI positively predicted all dimensions of student engagement and promoted key learning outcomes (including GPA, generic learning outcomes, and student’s satisfaction with the university) via the different dimensions of student engagement. The model also explained 16%, 44%, and 38% of the student’s GPA, generic learning outcomes, and satisfaction with their university experience, respectively.
Al-Musa et al. (2017) conducted a study to estimate the academic performance of students with the help of EI and economic status. 292 students of 11th standard of Aligarh district were selected. EI brought 18.4% variance in academic performance.
Moshahid and Vadakkayil (2017) conducted a study on 160 Engineering Students of Telangana, India, using Mangal EI tool. The results stated that there was a significant relationship between EI and academic performance.
Dhillon et al. (2015) conducted a study entitled “Study of EI among Adolescents Concerning Their Gender.” The purpose of the study was to examine the EI of male and female adolescents, that is, 12th class students. It was found that the male adolescents were stronger emotionally than females which was attributed to the fact that male children were exposed to the more congenial physical and socio-cultural environment and become emotionally stronger than girls.
Saleem (2015) conducted a study entitled “Relationship Between EI and Academic Achievement of Postgraduate Students in Pakistan.” The study intended to analyze the relationship between EI and academic achievement of students at the postgraduate level in public sector universities of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Pearson correlation was used as a statistical technique. The findings of the study revealed that a significant relationship between EI and academic achievement of postgraduate students was found.
Umaru and Umma (2015) conducted a study entitled “Effect of Instruction in EI Skills on Locus of Control and Academic Self-efficacy Among Junior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria.” A sample of 40 students were selected and the data were analyzed by using t-test. The findings revealed that EI skills were effective in moderating locus of control and improve academic self-efficacy of secondary school students.
And there was no gender difference in the effect of EI skills on the locus of control and academic self-efficacy of respondents.
Adnan (2014) conducted a study entitled “Study on EI and Religious Orientation Among Secondary School Student.” The study aimed to find the differences in EI and religious orientation between students in Government and Religious secondary schools. The study compressed 224 respondents that were selected via the purposive sampling method. The EI questionnaire used in the study was based on Bar-On’s EI theory while religious orientation was measured using the religion orientation scale. Collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software version 19.0. A t-test was used to view the differences in EI and religious orientation between students in government and religious secondary schools. The findings showed that there were significant differences in EI, but no difference was seen in religious orientation between students from government and religious secondary schools.
Gupta and Huang (2014) conducted a study entitled “EI Among Students Concerning Type of School, Locality & Gender: A Comparative Study.” The purpose of the study was to examine EI among secondary school students concerning the type of school, locality, and gender. The descriptive survey method was adopted for this study. A sample of 200 secondary school students studying in 10 standards was selected randomly from the Jind district. Mangal EI tool was used for data collection. Different statistical techniques were used such as Mean, SD, and t-test. The findings of the study showed that female students were more emotionally intelligent in comparison to male students. It was also found that students belong to the urban area and private school students were highly emotionally intelligent than their counterparts.
Jenaabadi (2014) conducted a study on the relationship between EI and Self-Esteem with Academic Achievement. It was a descriptive-correlative study. The investigator aimed to find out the relationship between EI and self-esteem with academic achievement. The statistical population of the study included 2,000 students of Kahnooj Payam-e Nour University, 300 students (150 females and 150 males) were selected randomly as a sample. Bar-Ann’s EI questionnaire and Pop’s self-esteem questionnaire were used to collect data. Findings showed that EI and self-esteem of students did not affect their academic achievements and self-esteem. Findings further revealed that female students were stronger than male students in EI.
Sharma (2014) conducted a study entitled “EI Predictor of Academic Performance?” A sample of 200 senior secondary students (male and female) was selected randomly from the Delhi region. The finding showed a positive correlation between EI and academic performance which means that students with high EI have better academic performance in their scholastic achievements. The study also found that there was a significant difference between the mean academic performance scores of students having high and low EI.
Nwadinigwe and Azuka-Obieke (2012) conducted a study entitled “The Impact of EI on Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary School Students in Lagos, Nigeria.” A sample of 156 students was selected randomly from three senior secondary schools from Nigeria. The schools were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions (EI training techniques) and control groups. The hypotheses were tested using the descriptive statistical technique such as analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. The findings revealed that a positive relationship between EI skills and academic achievement such that developing the EI skills of a student will lead to the enhancement of his/her academic achievement.
Sekar and Lawrence (2016) conducted a study entitled “Role of EI in Managing Academic Stress.” The purpose of the investigator was to major academic stressors and how to manage the academic stress by using EI. The study was based on engineering students in South Tamil Nadu, concentrated on six districts, and the researcher collected 510 samples from engineering college students. Students’ academic stress scale (SASS) and EI scale (EWAS) were used for data collection. The study concludes that EI was a key to manage academic stress and creating a pleasant environment for the students and supports them to present their best.
Sharma et al. (2012) conducted a study entitled “EI & Academic Motivation Among Adolescents: A Relationship Study.” A sample of 156 (78 boys and 78 girls) Class XI of Allahabad city were selected. Test of EI (student-form) developed by K. S. Misra and academic motivation inventory developed by J. P. Srivastava were used for the study. To analyze the data product-moment coefficients of correlation and ANOVA were used. The findings revealed that EI and academic motivation were positively correlated. The findings further revealed that students with high, moderate, and low academic motivation differ from one another on EI.
Festus and Ekpete (2012) conducted a study entitled “The Relationship Between EI and Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary School Students in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.” A sample of 1,160 senior secondary school students was selected through a proportionately stratified sampling technique. The instruments used for the study were the EI inventory by, YingMing et al. (2007), and the mathematics achievement test developed by the researcher. Mean and Pearson product-moment correlation statistical techniques were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that a significant low positive relationship between the EI of SS2 students and their academic achievement in Mathematics.
Muhammad et al. (2011) conducted a study entitled “Relationship Between EI and Academic Achievement Among Higher Secondary School Students.” The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was used for data collection. The academic achievement of the participants was measured through their annual findings. Pearson correlation and t-test statistical techniques were used to analyze data. Findings revealed that a significant relationship was found between the two constructs. Firstborn students scored high on EI as compared to later-born students. Urban area students scored high as compared to rural area students in EI. The result further revealed that in terms of EI female students scored high as compared to male students.
Osho et al. (2010) conducted a study entitled “Emotional Intelligence and Self-regulation among School-going Adolescents: Self-efficacy as a Mediator.” The study investigated the mediating effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between EI and self-regulation among school-going adolescents. A total of 467 adolescents from 10 schools in Ogun State, Nigeria, were selected. Findings showed among others that (a) self-efficacy, self-regulation, and EI were severally positively related (b) there was a significant 66 relationship between EI and self-regulation, and (c) no relationship existed between EI and self-regulation while adjusting for self-efficacy, indicating complete mediating effects of self-efficacy on the EI and self-regulation relations. Based on the findings, it was established that self-efficacy was a strong factor in the relationship between EI and self-regulation.
Olatoye et al. (2010) studied “EI, Creativity and Academic Achievement of Business Administration Students.” The purpose of the investigator was to investigate the extent to which the level of creativity and EI influenced the level of academic achievement of higher national diploma business administration students of polytechnics in the southwestern states of Nigeria. A sample of 235 students was selected. There was a very low negative, no significant relationship between creativity and CGPA scores. Findings further revealed that no significant difference between male and female students in academic achievement, creativity, and EI.
The studies conducted so far by MacCann et al. (2020), Asghar et al. (2020), Adnan (2014), Gupta and Huang (2014), Arcari et al. (2014), Sharma (2014), Pinyol and Sabater-Mir (2013), Sharma et al. (2012), Sekar and Lawrence (2016), and Joibari and Mohammadtaheri (2011) confirm that EI directly influences academic performance, however the extent varies from situation to situation. The studies also state that an increase in the EI will lead to better academic performance and vice versa. The studies of Jafari and Eftekhari (2020), Moshahid and Vadakkayil (2017), Jenaabadi (2014), Javed and Nasreen (2013), Festus and Ekpete (2012), and Olatoye et al. (2010) confirm that EI does not directly influence academic performance.
The gaps identified in this chapter are arrived after reviewing 25 papers spanning across a decade. Findings from the review of literature, do not converge to establish the relationship between EI and academic performance, because the studies conducted thus far by MacCann et al. (2020), Asghar et al. (2020), Adnan (2014), Gupta and Huang (2014), Arcari et al. (2014), Sharma (2014), Pinyol and Sabater-Mir (2013), Sharma et al. (2012), Sekar and Lawrence (2016), and Joibari and Mohammadtaheri (2011) confirm that EI directly influences academic performance, however the extent varies from situation to situation. The studies also state that an increase in the EI will lead to better academic performance and vice versa. The studies of Jafari and Eftekhari (2020), Moshahid and Vadakkayil (2017), Jenaabadi (2014), Javed and Nasreen (2013), Festus and Ekpete (2012), and Olatoye et al. (2010) confirm that EI does not directly influence academic performance. The published research has focused on the relationship between EI and academic performance of students in the Middle East and Africa (Adnan, 2014; Kumar, 2009; MacCann et al., 2020; Pinyol & Sabater-Mir, 2013; Joibari & Mohammadtaheri, 2011; Oke, 2006; Parker, 2005; Petrides et al., 2004; Asghar et al., 2020; Sekar & Lawrence, 2016). This is a geographical limitation as the results can vary in India due to cultural differences and the academic evaluation standards. There is a paucity of published research on the relationship between EI and academic performance of postgraduate students in India. Thereby, a population void is identified.
Figure 3. Conceptual Model
Source: Authors’ own.
This conceptual model shown in Figure 3 is developed based on the gaps identified in the research. This model focusses on understanding the influence of EI (independent variable) on the academic performance (dependent variable) of students.
Does EI affect academic performance of students?
To understand the influence of EI on academic performance of MBA students.
EI has an influence on academic performance of MBA students.
The scale used for this study is Warrier’s EI tool which comprises of 49 EI Quotient Questions with six subcategories such as self-awareness and impulse control, response to adversity, pro-social behavior, inspirational leadership, optimism, and tolerance to ambiguity, achievement orientation. The scale was developed to measure the EI.
The EI Questionnaire–Warrier’s EI Scale 2.0 comprises of two parts. The first section comprises the demographic questions. The second section comprises of 49 EI questions in six categories. The scoring was on a 5-point Likert Scale from 1 to 5, Strongly Disagree (1), Disagree (2), Neutral (3), Agree (4), and Strongly Agree (5) (Schutte, 1998). The sum of the individual EI score of each respondent has been divided by the total number of EI questions, which gives the net EI score. This net EI score is considered for all other correlations with other variables.
Table 1. Norms for Measuring EI
Source: Venkteshwar and Warrier (2018).
Table 1 depicts the level of EI. Net EI score above 90 is considered superior EI; 61–89 is considered good EI; 41–60 is considered average EI; 40 and below is considered inferior EI. The interpretation of the Warrier’s EI Scale is listed below after reviewing all mentioned scales:
1. Superior EI: When a person has superior EI he/she will have very high empathy, very self-aware, and be well balanced. They also tend to be extremely curious and gracious (Power, 2017).
2. Good EI: When a person has good EI, he/she will have high empathy, self-awareness, and balanced. They also tend to be curious and gracious (Power, 2017).
3. Average EI: When a person has average EI, he/she will have average empathy, somewhat self-aware, and somewhat balanced. They also tend to be not very curious and gracious (Power, 2017).
4. Poor EI: When a person has poor EI, he/she will have very low empathy, not very self-aware, and not balanced. They are not very curious and gracious (Power, 2017).
A total of 200,000 students are pursuing MBA in India and close to 23,000 students in Karnataka pursue MBA. The population for this study is MBA students in Karnataka (Shiksha.com, 2017).
Sampling Frame. Sampling frame is being drawn from the target population. Sampling frame helps in narrowing down infinite respondents into required respondents for the study. Sampling frame is the list of units from which the sample is selected. According to Karnataka Administration (2016), there are four administrative divisions in Karnataka. First Division consisting of Bengaluru, Ramanagara, and Davanagere. Second Division consisting of Belagavi, Vijayapura, and Haveri. Third Division consisting of Mysuru, Haasan, and Udupi. Fourth Division consisting of Kalaburgi, Ballari, Bidar, and Koppal. There are 456 MBA colleges and 23,000 students in Karnataka (Shiksha.com, 2017).
This study was exclusively conducted for MBA students who have completed their first two semesters and have their SGPA scores with them.
Sample Size. The samples were selected after considering sample size formulae developed by Cochran (David, 2005).
Cochran’s Formula was the second formula used to calculate the sample size (David, 2005).
The Original Sample is 1,000. MBA population in Karnataka is 23,000 (Shiksha.com, 2018).
n = 958.37 = 958 students
However, to be more precise and accurate, a sample of 960 respondents was selected for this study. As far as data analysis tool, data analysis is carried out by using SEM which was run by AMOS 20.0 Program.
1. Stratified sampling was used for the study. According to Baker and Cerro (2000), this is a method in which the total population is divided into stratas. The strata are formed based on some common characteristics in the population data. In this case, the strata are divided based on the geographical location After dividing the population into geographical strata, the researcher randomly selects the sample proportionally using simple random sampling. The sample was divided based on the geographical division in Karnataka. There are four administrative divisions in Karnataka. First Division consisting of Bengaluru, Ramanagara, and Davanagere. Second Division consisting of Belagavi, Vijayapura, and Haveri. Third Division consisting of Mysuru, Haasan, and Udupi. Fourth Division consisting of Kalaburgi, Ballari, Bidar, and Koppal (Karnataka Administration, 2016).
2. Simple Random sampling was used in the next stage. There are 456 MBA colleges and 23,000 students in Karnataka (Shiksha.com, 2020). Bangalore has 85 MBA colleges, Belagavi has 8 colleges, Mysore has 6 MBA colleges, while Kalburgi has only 4 MBA colleges. Here all MBA college names were put into a box (division-wise) and based on the lottery method, two colleges’ names were drawn. MBA colleges that were eventually selected were CMS Business School (First Division), Christ Institute of Management (First Division), Institute of Management Education and Research (Second Division), Center for PG Studies (Second Division), Cauvery Degree College (Third Division), Anjuman Institute of Technology and Management (Third Division) and Doddappa Appa Institute of Master of Business Administration (Fourth Division).
3. The students were selected based on convenient sampling as it required them to fill up the EI and the study skills questionnaire.
Table 2. Indicating Pearson’s Correlation Coefficients Between Emotional Intelligence and Academic Performance
Note: ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Inclusion Criteria. This study was exclusively conducted for MBA students who have completed their first two semesters and have their SGPA scores with them. Students who have not yet completed their first two semesters or do not have their SGPA scores of the first two semesters have been excluded from the study.
Analysis Based on Correlation
As shown in Table 2, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient is computed to assess the relationship between EI and academic performance of MBA students. The consolidated strength of the relationship between EI and academic performance was found to be moderate at 0.520. Although the relationships between EI and academic performance were found to be significant at 0.01, however the strongest correlation is between self-awareness and impulse control and academic performance (0.812), and the weakest correlation is between optimism, tolerance to ambiguity, achievement orientation, and academic performance (0.302). The hypothesis exhibits a significant relationship existing between EI and academic performance. The studies conducted so far by Parker (2004), Petrides et al. (2004), Gupta and Huang (2014), Arcari et al. (2014), Sharma (2014), and Asghar et al. (2020) clearly state that EI has a direct impact on academic performance.
Findings and Discussion
There is a significant relationship between EI and academic performance. The relationship between EI and academic performance was moderate. The studies conducted so far by Parker (2004), Petrides et al. (2004), Gupta and Huang (2014), Arcari et al. (2014), Sharma (2014), and Asghar et al. (2020) clearly state that EI has a direct impact on academic performance. It is indicated that students in a random population of MBA students with higher EI perform exceptionally well in academics when compared to students with lower EI (Petrides et al., 2004). Students with higher EI are socially responsible and are focused on achieving the academic rigor set by the higher educational institutions, making them an asset to the institute and society at large.
Educational Implications. Educational institutions must create awareness on “EI to all the stakeholders—teachers, students, parents, management through symposiums, seminars, motivational videos and case studies.” Annual computation of EI of a student has to be made mandatory at an institutional level. Systematic and Consistent training of EI in institutions is imperative.
Societal Implications. Establishing centers of EI that focus on Training and Coaching of EI has to be widely implemented. These centers should focus on identifying lacunae in individuals and can concentrate on enhancing their EI skills.
Recommendation to the Ministry of Human Resource Development/Education. The Ministry of HRD should create awareness on EI to all the stakeholders. They need to ensure annual EI computation of a student, which has to be made mandatory at an institutional level. They need to ensure EI measurement scales are easily available to facilitate self-assessment. Evaluation of EI for the selection of students in schools and colleges should become mandatory throughout the country. EI should become a parameter of assessment in institutes as a part of their holistic system of education. EI needs to become a paper in UGC NET/SET examination so that academicians will be better equipped to handle students. EI should be added to the high school curriculum as a core subject to help students understand the role of EI from a young age.
Blueprint. UGC can implement the above blueprint in all institutes, schools, and universities across the country to ensure EI is given its due in higher education. The blueprint of MHRD is shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4. Blueprint for MHRD
Source: Researcher created.
Limitations of the Study
For this study of EI and academic performance, the geographical span was limited to Karnataka state and only the MBA students were considered for the study. There was no equal distribution of gender in the sample. The balance of the government–private university was also not maintained.
Social desirability in the self-report measure can lead to inaccuracy in the data collected. The respondent could be a victim of leniency effect. The limited size of the sample is not adequate to make further conclusions.
Suggestions for Further Research
The modern concept of EI is in itself a youthful one. Much work has yet to be done to discover exactly what EI encompasses and how it would be most effectively applied.
The present research was limited only to the students of MBA, but academic administrators such as chancellors, vice-chancellors, directors, deans, and heads of various departments may be taken into account and research could be pursued in that area. So, further research could be done to study the relationship between the academic administrator’s leadership style and EI.
Research may be carried out to understand the degree to which EI can be instructed and trained. Evidences exist in favor of and contradicting to the trainability of EI. Subsequent researches must ascertain the degree to which these training sessions are feasible and viable before an organization decides on investing substantial funds for upskilling and reskilling the employees.
EI has seen a rapid growth in the past decade. It has impacted every aspect of human life. Academic performance is one of the most important indicators in student life. This study identified the relationship between EI and academic performance of MBA students in Karnataka. This empirical study is based on a sample drawn from 960 MBA students in Karnataka. Warrier’s EI Tool (a = 0.887) was used to collect the responses of EI.
This study along with its findings should be viewed as a starting point for more extensive research. The present research reveals that there is a close relationship between EI and academic performance. EI is effective and important for the successful performance of any job. Students deal with the emotions of faculty, non-teaching staff, peers, and family, therefore they need emotional management skills to handle situations that make for a healthier, productive, and rewarding life.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
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