Effect of Communication Strategies for Implementation of IT-based Educational Innovation During COVID-19 Pandemic on Students’ Motivation, Attitude, and Intent
1 Department of Humanities, English and Applied Sciences (HEAS), Rajasthan Technical University, Kota, Rajasthan, India
Creative Commons Non Commercial CC BY-NC: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-Commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).
The COVID-19 pandemic made the world come to a halt, but the number and pace of innovation responses became faster than ever. However, there is a paucity of studies concentrating on the management/implementation of innovation in educational institutes. Moreover, no in-depth study has been conducted on the effect of communication strategies adopted for educational innovation implementation on the students’ motivation, attitude, and intent to use, particularly in India, to the best of the writer’s information. Accordingly, the present study aims to address the research gaps by measuring the effect of select communication strategies used for implementing IT-based educational innovations. Grounded on prior research, the study scrutinizes the effect of rational persuasive strategy (utilizing legitimate contentions), assertive strategy (utilizing intimidation), and consulting strategy (engaging in the act of giving expert advice), and inspirational (evoking feelings of appreciation) strategy. To address the hypotheses framed, the data for the cross-sectional quantitative study was collected from engineering students using an e-questionnaire from Rajasthan, India. The sample comprised 305 (84.3% male and 15.7% female) students, with a mean age of 18.16 years. The findings of PLS-SEM using SmartPLS 3.2.9 confirmed that all strategies except assertive strategy had a positive and significant effect on motivation, attitude, and intent, thereby confirming the role of communication strategies. The study adds to the extant studies on communication strategies, innovation implementation, and adoption of Information Technology for education. The managerial implications include assisting institutes, faculty, and administration in providing insight into appropriate tactics to encourage the implementation of educational innovations among students. The study will also be useful for the administrators/policymakers, for better comprehension of issues and finding solutions for innovation implementation.
Survey of practices, higher education, communication strategies, innovation management/implementation
JEL Classification: I23, I28, I29
Al-Asfour, A., & Lettau, L. (2014). Strategies for leadership styles for a multigenerational workforce. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 11, 58–70.
Ali, F., Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Sarstedt, M., Ringle Christian, M., & Ryu, K. (2018). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in hospitality research. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1), 514–538.
Alrawadieh, Z., Cetin, G., Dincer, M. Z., & Dincer, F. I. (2020). The impact of emotional dissonance on quality of work-life and life satisfaction of tour guides. The Service Industries Journal, 40(1–2), 50–64.
Aryee, S., Walumbwa, F. O., Mondejar, R., & Chu, C. W. (2015). Accounting for the influence of overall justice on job performance: Integrating self-determination and social exchange theories. Journal of Management Studies, 52, 231–252.
Atun, R. A., Kyratsis, I., Jelic, G., Rados-Malicbegovic, D., & Gurol-Urganci, I. (2007). Diffusion of complex health innovations: Implementation of primary health care reforms in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Health Policy and Planning, 22(1), 28–39.
Baek, U., Olya, H., & Lee, S. K. (2018). Effects of individual resources and team-member exchange on service quality. The Service Industries Journal, 38(9–10), 584–606.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of the structural equation model. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.
Baradarani, S., & Kilic, H. (2018). Service innovation in the hotel industry: Culture, behavior, performance. The Service Industries Journal, 38(13–14), 897–924.
Brewer, D., & Tierney, W. (2012). Barriers to innovation in the US education. In B. Wildavsky, A. Kelly & K. Carey (Eds), Reinventing higher education: The promise of innovation (pp. 11–40). Harvard Education Press.
Burke, W. W. (2014). Organization change: Theory and practice (4th ed.). SAGE Publications.
Chen, G., Farh, J., Campbell-Bush, E., Wu, Z., & Wu, X. (2013). Teams as innovative systems: Multilevel motivational antecedents of innovation in R&D teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98, 1018–1027.
Chin, R., & Benne, K. D. (2009). General strategies for effecting changes in human systems. In W. W. Burke, D. G. Lake & J. W. Paine (Eds), Organization change: A comprehensive reader (pp. 89–117). Jossey-Bass.
Chiu, H. H. (2017). Employees’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in innovation implementation: The moderation role of managers’ persuasive and assertive strategies. Journal of Change Management, 18(3), 218–239.
Chiu, H., & Fogel, J. (2017). The role of the manager influence strategies and innovation attributes in innovation implementation. Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, 9(1), 16–36.
Choi, J. N., Sung, S. Y., Lee, K., & Cho, D. (2011). Balancing cognition and emotion: Innovation implementation as a function of cognitive appraisal and emotional reactions toward innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32, 107–124.
Chong, M. (2014). Influence behaviors and organizational commitment: A comparative study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 35, 54–78.
Chong, M. P., Muethel, M., Richards, M., Fu, P. P., Peng, T. K., Shang, Y. F., & Caldas, M. P. (2013). Influence behaviors and employees’ reactions: An empirical test among six societies based on a transactional–relational contract model. Journal of World Business, 48, 373–384.
Chong, M. P., Peng, T. K., Fu, P. P., Richards, M., Muethel, M., Caldas, M. P., & Shang, Y. F. (2015). Relational perspectives on leaders’ influence behavior: The mediation of western leader-member exchange and Chinese Guanxi. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46, 71–87.
Christensen, M. (2014). Communication as a strategic tool in change processes. Journal of Business Communication, 51, 359–385.
Chung, G. H., & Choi, J. N. (2018). Innovation implementation as a dynamic equilibrium: Emergent processes and divergent outcomes. Group and Organization Management, 43(6), 999–1036.
Chung, G. H., Choi, J. N., & Du, J. (2017). Tired of innovations? Learned helplessness and fatigue in the context of continuous streams of innovation implementation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(7), 1130–1148.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Cohen, L., Duberley, J., & Mallon, M. (2004). Social constructionism in the study of career: Accessing the parts that other approaches cannot reach. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64(3), 407–422.
Cronbach, L. J. (1971). Test validation. In R. L. Thorndike (Ed.) Educational measurement (2nd ed., pp. 443–507). American Council on Education.
Dearing, J., & Cox, J. (2018). Diffusion of innovations theory, principles, and practice. Health Affairs, 37(2), 183–190.
Dhir, S., Ongsakul, V., Ahmed, Z. U., & Rajan, R. (2019). Integration of knowledge and enhancing competitiveness: A case of acquisition of Zain by Bharti Airtel. Journal of Business Research, 119, 674–684.
digitalLearning Network. (2017, August 10). Rajasthan Higher Education embracing change for a new era of opportunities. https://digitallearning.eletsonline.com/2017/08/rajasthan-higher-education-embracing-change-for-new-era-of-opportunities
Dube, G. (2018). The design and implementation of minibus taxi presumptive taxes. The Service Industries Journal, 38(11–12), 723–741.
Enu-Kwesi, F., & Opoku, M. O. (2020). Relevance of the technology acceptance model (TAM) in information management research: A review of selected empirical evidence. Pressacademia, 7(1), 34–44.
Falter, M., & Hadwich, K. (2020). Customer service well-being: Scale development and validation. The Service Industries Journal, 40(1–2), 181–202.
Field, A. P. (2005). Discovering statistics using SPSS. SAGE Publications.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50.
Fu, P. P., Peng, T. K., Kennedy, J. C., & Yukl, G. (2004). Examining the preferences of influence tactics in Chinese societies: A comparison of Chinese managers in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Mainland China. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 32–46.
Gagne, M., & Deci, E. (2005). Self-determination theory and work motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 331–362.
González-Blanco, J., Coca-Pérez, J. L., & Guisado-González, M. (2019). Relations between technological and non-technological innovations in the service sector. The Service Industries Journal, 39(2), 134–153.
Gopalan, V., Abu-Bakar, J. A., & Zulkifli, A. N. (2020). A review of motivation theories, models, and instruments in a learning environment. Journal of Critical Reviews, 7(6), 554–559.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Prentice-Hall.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial. Least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.
Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) (2nd ed.). SAGE Publications.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–151.
Haivas, S., Hofmans, J., & Pepermans, R. (2013). Volunteer engagement and intention to quit from a self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 1869–1880.
Harding, R. E. M. (1948). An anatomy of inspiration: And an essay on the creative mood. Routledge.
Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., Ketchen, D. J., Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., & Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common beliefs and reality about partial least squares: Comments on Rönkkö & Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182–209.
Henseler, J., Hubona, G., & Ray, P. A. (2016). Using PLS path modeling in new technology research: Updated guidelines. Review of Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116(1), 2–20.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 43, 115–135.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C., & Sinkovics, R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Review of Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277–320.
Hoffman, E., & Roman, P. M. (1984). Information diffusion in the implementation of the innovation process. Communication Research, 11(1), 117–140.
Huy, Q., Corley, K., & Kraatz, M. (2014). From support to mutiny: Shifting legitimacy judgments and emotional reactions impacting the implementation of radical change. Academy of Management Journal, 57, 1650–1680.
Johnson, J. D. (2001). Success in innovation implementation. Journal of Communication Management, 5(4), 341–359.
Kim, J. S., & Chung, G. H. (2017). Implementing innovations within organizations: A systematic review and research agenda. Innovation: Management, Policy, and Practice, 19(3), 372–399
Kirillova, K., Fu, X., & Kucukusta, D. (2020). Workplace design and well-being: Aesthetic perceptions of hotel employees. The Service Industries Journal, 40(1–2), 27–49.
Klein, K., & Sorra, J. (1996). The challenge of innovation implementation. Academy of Management Review, 21, 1055–1080.
Klein, K. J., Conn, A. B., & Sorra, J. S. (2001). Implementing computerized technology: An organizational analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 811.
Lambooij, M. S., & Koster, F. (2016). How organizational escalation prevention potential affects the success of the implementation of innovations: Electronic medical records in hospitals. Implementation Science, 11(1), 1–10.
Lapiedra, R., Alegre, J., & Chiva, R. (2011). The importance of management innovation and consultant services on ERP implementation success. The Service Industries Journal, 31(12), 1907–1919.
Loscocco, K. A. (1989). The instrumentally oriented factory worker. Work and Occupations, 16, 3–25.
Maroulis, S., & Wilensky, U. (2015). Social and task interdependencies in the street-level implementation of innovation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 25(3), 721–750.
Merli, R., Preziosi, M., Acampora, A., & Ali, F. (2019). Why should hotels go green? Insights from guests experience in green hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 81, 169–179.
Murray, C. E. (2020). Diffusion of innovation theory: A bridge for the research-practice gap in counseling. Journal of Counseling and Development, 87(1), 108–116.
Nahavandi, A., Denhardt, R., Denhardt, J., & Aristigueta, M. (2015). Organizational behavior (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. McGraw-Hill.
Oleynick, V. C., Thrash, T. M., LeFew, M. C., Moldovan, E. G., & Kieffaber, P. D. (2014). The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: Challenges and opportunities. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 436.
Pallant, J. (2005). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (Version 12) (2nd ed.). Open University Press.
Pierro, A., Cicero, L., & Raven, B. (2008). Motivated compliance with bases of social power. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1921–1944.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5), 879–903.
Rogers, E. M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5th ed.). Free Press.
Sharma, R., & Yetton, P. (2007). The contingent effects of training, technical complexity, and task interdependence on successful information systems implementation. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 31, 219–238.
Singh, S., Akbani, I., & Dhir, S. (2020). Service innovation implementation: A systematic review and research agenda. The Service Industries Journal, 40(7–8), 491–517.
Somech, A., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2013). Translating team creativity to innovation implementation: The role of team composition and climate for innovation. Journal of Management, 39(3), 684–708.
Sprenger, D. A., & Schwaninger, A. (2021). Technology acceptance of four digital learning technologies (classroom response system, classroom chat, e-lectures, and mobile virtual reality) after three months’ usage. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 18, 8.
Stone, M. (1974). Cross-validatory choice and assessment of statistical predictions. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 36(2), 111–147.
Thrash, T. M., & Elliot, A. J. (2003). Inspiration as a psychological construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 871–889.
Tian, Q., Song, Y., Kwan, H. K., & Li, X. (2019). Workplace gossip and frontline employees’ proactive service performance. The Service Industries Journal, 39(1), 25–42.
Usakli, A., & Kucukergin, K. G. (2018). Using partial least squares structural equation modeling in hospitality and tourism: Do researchers follow practical guidelines? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(11), 3462–3512.
Wilcox, K. C., & Lawson, H. A. (2018). Teachers’ agency, efficacy, engagement, and emotional resilience during policy innovation implementation. Journal of Educational Change, 19(2), 181–204.
Woolllinscroft, J. O. (2020). Innovation in response to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Academic Medicine, 20(10), 1–3.
Yukl, G., Chavez, C., & Seifert, C. F. (2005). Assessing the construct validity and utility of two new influence tactics. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26, 705–725.
Yukl, G., Seifert, C. F., & Chavez, C. (2008). Validation of the extended influence behavior questionnaire. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 609–621.
Zaineldeen, S., & Koffi, L. A. (2020). Technology acceptance model concepts, contribution, limitation, and adoption in education. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(11), 5061–5071.